The last decade has seen our understanding of Island Southeast Asia’s human story develop enormously. Not only have numerous records across both the geographic and temporal scales been recovered but we now have evidence from both the archaeological and genetic records for a much more complex history of different human movements throughout the region. This session will consider modern human activities in ISEA from the Pleistocene through to the Middle Holocene. As people moved into the ISEA region at different time periods, they encountered unfamiliar landscapes and challenging seascapes, naive ecosystems and depauperate faunas, and persevered or failed in their encounters with drastic changes in climate and geography. We encourage submissions which consider how modern humans adapted to these changes and challenges. Are there patterns in different land use and subsistence strategies? Is there evidence for early connectivity and exchange between island communities? When do different technologies appear and how did this influence these prehistoric island populations? Despite the significant improvements in our understanding of the regions prehistory, numerous geographic and temporal gaps remain in the ISEA record, and we welcome submissions which present new data to address some of these gaps.