Sustainability science is an emerging interdisciplinary paradigm that integrates both natural and social sciences to better understand linkages between humans and the environment and how these connections shape understandings of, and approaches to, the sustainability crisis. Archaeology is playing an increasingly important role in meeting such challenges and defining viable ways for adapting to these issues in the future. In this session, we explore how peoples in the Pacific interacted with their island environments in which there were either positive or negative outcomes (social, ecological, etc.), but that ultimately led to altered lifeways to ensure survivability and create more sustainable and resilient practices. Possible topics include the application and refinement of agricultural or arboricultural practices, establishment of marine tenure systems, feedback loops across biospheres, land management practices, resource switching, and how knowledge of these practices can be preserved in the material record, among other issues. In addition, cases where traditional systems are being used or revitalized today to address modern climatic crises and the preservation of cultural heritage is of particular interest.